To write a paper

How to, write a, research Introduction (with Sample

An important issue is that you must not include references in this section; you are presenting your results, so you cannot refer to others here. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the discussion section. Divider Step 4: Write the discussion Here you must respond to what the results mean. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. This is because it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the discussion is weak. You need to make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results.

For numbers, use two significant digits unless more precision is necessary (2.08, not.07856444). Never use percentages for very small samples. G., "one out of two" should not be replaced. However, remember that most journals offer the possibility of adding Supporting Materials, so use them freely for data of secondary importance. In this way, do not attempt to better "hide" data in the hope of saving it for a later paper. You may lose evidence to reinforce your conclusion. If data are too abundant, you can use those report supplementary materials. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. Number these sub-sections for the convenience of internal cross-referencing, but always taking into account the publisher's guide for Authors. For the data, decide on a logical order that tells a clear story and makes it and easy to understand. Generally, this will be in the same order as presented in the methods section.

to write a paper

How to, write a, research, paper

Mammals) Description of the statistical methods used needed (including confidence levels, etc.) In this section, avoid adding comments, results, and discussion, which is a common error. Divider Step 3: Write up the results This section responds to the question "What have you found?" Hence, only representative results from your research should be presented. The results should be essential for discussion. Statistical rules Indicate the statistical tests used with all relevant parameters:. G., mean and standard deviation (sd 44 (3 median and interpercentile range: 7 years (4.5.5 years). Use mean and standard deviation to report normally distributed data. Use median and interpercentile range to report skewed data.

to write a paper

Writing a, research, paper, using Color-Coded Index Cards

Here are some general guidelines: Title: Short and informative abstract: 1 paragraph ( 250 words) Introduction:.5-2 pages Methods: 2-3 pages Results: 6-8 pages Discussion: 4-6 pages Conclusion: 1 paragraph Figures: 6-8 (one per page) Tables: 1-3 write (one per page) References: 20-50 papers (2-4 pages). In this way, all chemicals must be identified. Do not use proprietary, unidentifiable compounds. To this end, it's important to use standard systems for numbers and nomenclature. For example: Present proper control experiments and statistics used, again to make the experiment of investigation repeatable. List the methods in the same order they will appear in the results section, in the logical order in which you did the research: Description of the site description of the surveys or experiments done, giving information on dates, etc. Description of the laboratory methods, including separation or treatment of samples, analytical methods, following the order of waters, sediments and biomonitors. If you have worked with different biodiversity components start from the simplest (i.e. Microbes) to the more complex (i.e.

Sometimes, fonts are too small for the journal. You must take this into account, or they may be illegible to readers (Figure 6). Finally, you must pay attention to the use of decimals, lines, etc. (Figure 7) divider Step 2: Write the methods This section responds to the question of how the problem was studied. If your paper is proposing a new method, you need to include detailed information so a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment. However, do not repeat the details of established methods; use references and Supporting Materials to indicate the previously published procedures. Broad summaries or key references are sufficient. Length of the manuscript Again, look at the journal's guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only.

Write, a term, paper tag custom Essays, term

to write a paper

How to write a technical paper

Think about appropriate axis label size include clear symbols and data sets that are easy to distinguish. Never include long boring tables (e.g., chemical compositions of emulsion summary systems or lists of species and abundances). You can include them as personal supplementary material. If you are using photographs, each must have a scale marker, or scale bar, of professional quality in one corner. In photographs and figures, use color only when necessary when submitting to a print publication. If different line styles can clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects or you will be charged with expensive fees.

Of course, this does not apply to online journals. For many journals, you can submit duplicate figures: one in color for the online version of the journal and pdfs, and another in black and white for the hardcopy journal (Figure 4). Another common problem is the misuse of lines and histograms. Lines joining data only can be used when presenting time series or consecutive samples data (e.g., in a transect from coast to offshore in Figure 5). However, when there is no connection between samples or there is not a gradient, you must use histograms (Figure 5).

Compose a concise and descriptive title. Select keywords for indexing. Write up the references. Next, i'll review each step in more detail. But before you set out to write a paper, there are two important things you should do that will set the groundwork for the entire process. The topic to be studied should be the first issue to be solved.

Define your hypothesis and objectives (These will go in the Introduction.) review the literature related to the topic and select some papers (about 30) that can be cited in your paper (These will be listed in the references.) Finally, keep in mind that each publisher. Divider Step 1: Prepare the figures and tables Remember that "a figure is worth a thousand words." Hence, illustrations, including figures and tables, are the most efficient way to present your results. Your data are the driving force of the paper, so your illustrations are critical! How do you decide between presenting your data as tables or figures? Generally, tables give the actual experimental results, while figures are often used for comparisons of experimental results with those of previous works, or with calculated/theoretical values (Figure 1). Whatever your choice is, no illustrations should duplicate the information described elsewhere in the manuscript. Another important factor: figure and table legends must be self-explanatory (Figure 2). When presenting your tables and figures, appearances count! To this end: avoid crowded plots (Figure 3 using only three or four data sets per figure; use well-selected scales.

Write, a, research, paper, for Kids

A nd d iscussion: What does it all mean? The main text is followed by the conclusion, Acknowledgements, references resume and Supporting Materials. While this is the published structure, however, we often use a different order when writing. Steps to organizing your manuscript Prepare the figures and tables. Write up the results. Finalize the results and Discussion before writing the introduction. This is because, if the discussion is insufficient, how can you objectively demonstrate the scientific significance of your work in the introduction? Write a clear Conclusion. Write a compelling introduction.

to write a paper

order of sections will be very different than the order of items on you checklist. An article begins with the title, abstract and keywords. The article text follows the, imrad format, which responds to the questions below: I ntroduction: What did you/others do? Why did you do it? M ethods: How did you do it? R esults: What did you find?

Angel Borja is beauty head of Projects at, azti-tecnalia, a research center in the basque country in Spain specializing in marine research and food technologies. Formerly he was also head of the department of Oceanography and head of the marine management Area. His main topic of investigation is marine ecology, and has published more than 270 contributions, from which 150 are in over 40 peer-reviewed journals, through his long career of 32 years of research. During this time he has investigated in multiple topics and ecosystem components, having an ample and multidisciplinary view of marine research. Borja is the Editor of several journals, including. Frontiers in Marine Ecosystem Ecology, revista de Investigación Marina, elsevier's, journal of sea research and, continental Shelf Research. In addition, he is a member of the editorial boards of Elsevier's.

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A seasoned editor gives advice to get your work published in an international journal. By angel Borja, phD Posted on How to Prepare a manuscript for International journals — part. In this monthly series,. Angel Borja draws on his extensive background as an author, reviewer and summary editor to give advice on preparing the manuscript (author's view the evaluation process (reviewer's view) and what there is to hate or love in a paper (editor's view). This article is the second in the series. The first article was: ". Six things to do before writing your manuscript."divider, the author,.

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