When writing by hand, use of capitals or underlining are easy ways to emphasise save particular words. However, word Processors allow better alternatives: capitals should generally be avoided, since they do not stand out very well, and are actually difficult to read, especially if used for more than a few words. Bold text is the strongest way to make words stand out. In essays it should only be used for headings and subheadings (unlike here where it is designed to help you pick out key points quickly! But this is a handbook, not an essay.) Italic text is used in professional printing for emphasis within body text. It should not be used in essays just to emphasise things you think are really important - like that! Keep it for foreign words and titles of books. Just using larger letters does not work well, and neither does s p a c i n g o. If you have produced an elegant looks-like-its-really-printed page style, underlining looks out of place (you rarely see it in books or magazines.).
You can put a reminder to double-space into a to do list writing Paragraphs Paragraphs, which should usually be kept reasonably short, help you to structure your argument, and again help the reader. They can break up large blocks of dull, grey text (left) so that, subliminally, starting to read a new page feels less of a chore (right). Indented first lines are one way of marking off paragraphs. However, an actual space between them also has advantages; some white space on the page is always a good idea. Things like a line space after each paragraph rest the readers eye a little. Emphasising text: Using capitals, bold, Italic, or underline you want headings and navigational aids like subheads to stand out on the page. It is also standard to emphasise certain words within body-text,. Foreign words and technical terms, such as biological species names (e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides and also titles of books.
Tip: It is a matter of taste, but justification is not always best. When they start using a word Processor most people use justification, largely because, for the first time, they can! Justified text can actually be hard to read, as in this example. Ragged right edge is often best - but not compulsory! Line spacing Most departments demand, or at least prefer, text to be double-spaced so that there is room to annotate the script. (you might get away with one-and-a-half spacing.) Tip : When writing on screen, you will probably prefer single line-spacing to see as much as possible in one screenful. You can then double-space the text just before final print-out, or perhaps earlier, so that you can edit and annotate your draft by hand before completing it for final print-out.
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For body text, around 11.5 point is usually best, and the default setting on your Word Processor will probably be about this size. ( nb of course you need to print it out: apparent size on the computer screen can be misleading.) The typing space: margins There should be a margin at least an inch (25mm) wide down both sides, partly to allow space for marking, but also. It is best to have a rather deeper margin at the bottom of the page. For some reason, the text on pages with margins equal all around appears to be sliding down the page. Nb if you decide to use headers and footers, you will need to allow extra letter space for them. To justify or not to justify? Text alignment There are several ways of arranging main text (body text).
These include: Aligned left (ranged left, ragged right edge) Is plain and simple to read. Justified text means that both the right and left edges of the text are straight, as in standard printed books. Centred text never use this for body text! Fairly obviously, santander the irregular starting points of each line make it all but impossible to read. Centring can be used for short headings (see below).
(Trendy magazines use all sorts of weird fonts and graphic effects to catch your attention, and can look really cool. But can you read them easily?) Designers reckon that for body text, the densest part of a page, serifed fonts are generally easier to read. So it is best to stick to classic-looking fonts for your main text,. Times, new Century, garamond, Plantin, etc.However, unserifed fonts can be very good for headings and subheadings. In addition to Arial, several other plain unserifed fonts are widely available, notably helvetica and Univers.
Dont use more than 2 fonts in a document. Avoid the ransom note effect! For your main text, you need to choose the size of the lettering as well as the typeface. This is usually measured in points, and is called the point size. For legibility, 10 point is pretty small, especially for those with imperfect eyesight (like many venerable academics). 12.5 is pretty big.
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Their use and style. The value of white space types of type you need to select a 'font'. Basically, a font consists of a typeface (a style of lettering) reproduced at a particular size, called the point size. ( nb there are other considerations in make defining the appearance of type, notably leading (pronounced ledding which you will come across in Word Processor option menus. Named after the metal in which type was once cast, leading refers to the depth of white space on which the letters are placed, but dont worry about such details unless you develop a particular interest in document design. ) Choosing a font Computers allow you to choose from many different types of lettering, so it seems a waste to use typewriter fonts such as courier. Read the sample texts. Dont be tempted to use exotic fonts! If you look at books and magazines, while all sorts of typefaces are used for headings, for the main text (body text) most will use fairly plain serifed fonts, that is, typefaces with the tiny expansions at the ends of the letter strokes.
Of course, if you are writing other kinds of documents for teleworking other audiences, such as brochures for commercial companies or exhibition panels for school-children, you would do things differently. But thats another story.). Always remember the kiss rule: k eep, i t, s imple, s toopid! Basics of document layout, you have to make a number of basic choices affecting the appearance of your document. Here we will look at: The kind of type you are going to use. Choosing fonts The typing space. Margins The arrangement of text on the page.
presentation, there are two main aims: Ease of use. The document must be simple to find your way around, and easy to read. You must match the style to circumstances. With essays, this is easy enough. You are aiming at a clean, perhaps elegant appearance, definitely without frills.
Basics of document layout (fonts, page layout, paragraphs emphasising text (Underlining, capitals, bold, italics, etc. titles, headings and subheads. References paper and bibliography (The 'harvard system finishing touches, and tricks of the trade. What is the aim? What are essays for? Essays, and other pieces of written work you are asked to present during your course, are intended to do several things. Of course they are supposed to show how much you have learned, and how well you can think about. They are also about how well you can communicate your knowledge and ideas. Written communication itself consists of two components: Content and writing style.
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Simon James, School of Archaeological Studies, University of leicester. External appearances do matter. Just as you would dress up for an interview, so you need to pay attention to the layout and appearance of documents you want people to read. The first thing they notice is presentation. It affects the attitude they bring to what you have to say. Take a few minutes out to get some tips on this important area. Nb, this is mostly about word-processing, way but many of these comments apply to handwritten documents too.). This document introduces you to: Aims of presentation (be clear in your aims before you start!).