Multiplex business plan

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The Crest Theatre 18 in downtown Sacramento, california, small-scale productions, film festivals or other presentations. Because of the late development of multiplexes, the term "cinema" or "theater" may refer either to the whole complex or a single auditorium, and sometimes "screen" is used to refer to an auditorium. A popular film may be shown on multiple screens at the same multiplex, which reduces the choice of other films but offers more choice of viewing times or a greater number of seats to accommodate patrons. Two or three screens may be created by dividing up an existing cinema (as Durwood did with his Roxy in 1964 but newly built multiplexes usually have at least six to eight screens, and often as many as twelve, fourteen, sixteen or even eighteen. Although definitions vary, a large multiplex with 20 or more screens is usually called a " megaplex ". However, in the United Kingdom, this was a brand name for Virgin Cinema (later ugc). The first megaplex is generally considered to be the kinepolis in Brussels, belgium, which opened in 1988 with 25 screens and a seating capacity of 7,500.

Taylor is credited by canadian sources as the inventor of the multiplex or cineplex; he later founded the cineplex Odeon Corporation, opening essay the 18-screen Toronto eaton Centre cineplex, the world's largest at the time, in Toronto, ontario. 16 In the United States, Stanley durwood of American Multi-cinema (now amc theatres ) is credited as pioneering the multiplex in 1963 after realizing that he could operate several attached auditoriums with the same staff needed for one through careful management of the start times. Ward Parkway center in Kansas City, missouri had the first multiplex cinema in the United States. Since the 1960s, multiple-screen theaters have become the norm, and many existing venues have been retrofitted so that they have multiple auditoriums. A single foyer area is shared among them. In the 1970s many large 1920s movie palaces were converted into multiple screen venues by dividing their large auditoriums, and sometimes even the stage space, into smaller theaters. Because of their size, and amenities like plush seating and extensive food/beverage service, multiplexes and megaplexes draw from a larger geographic area than smaller theaters. As a rule of thumb, they pull audiences from an eight to 12-mile radius, versus a three to five-mile radius for smaller theaters (though the size of this radius depends on population density). 17 As a result, the customer geography area of multiplexes and megaplexes typically overlaps with smaller theaters, which face threat of having their audience siphoned by bigger theaters that cut a wider swath in the movie-going landscape. In most markets, nearly all single-screen theaters (sometimes referred to as a "Uniplex have gone out of business; the ones remaining are generally used for arthouse films,.

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Depending on the angle of rake of the seats, the aisles have steps. In older theaters, aisle lights were often built into the end seats of each row to gpa help patrons find their way in the dark. Since the advent of stadium theaters with stepped aisles, each step in the aisles may be outlined with small lights to prevent patrons from tripping in the darkened theater. In movie theaters, the auditorium may also have lights that go to a low level, when the movie is going to begin. Theaters often have booster seats for children and other short people to put on the seat, to sit higher, for a better view. Many modern theaters have accessible seating areas for patrons in wheelchairs. See also luxury screens below. Multiplexes and megaplexes edit Example of a multiplex layout main article: multiplex (movie theater) Canada was the first country in the world to have a two-screen theater. The Elgin Theatre in Ottawa, ontario became the first venue to offer two film programs on different screens in 1957 when Canadian theater-owner Nat taylor converted the dual screen theater into one capable of showing two different movies simultaneously.

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In conventional low pitch viewing floors the preferred seating arrangement is to use staggered rows. While a essay less efficient use of floor space this allows a somewhat improved sight line between the patrons seated in the next row toward the screen, provided they do not lean toward one another. " Stadium seating popular in modern multiplexes, actually dates back to the 1920s. The 1922 Princess Theatre in Honolulu, hawaii featured "stadium seating sharply raked rows of seats extending from in front of the screen back towards the ceiling. It gives patrons a clear sight line over the heads of those seated in front of them. Modern "stadium seating" was utilized in imax theaters, which have very tall screens, beginning in the early 1970s. Rows of seats are divided by one or more aisles so that there are seldom more than 20 seats in a row. This allows easier access to seating, as the space between rows is very narrow.

Traditionally a movie theater, like a stage theater, consists of a single auditorium with rows of comfortable padded seats, as well as a foyer area containing a box office for buying tickets. Movie theaters also often have a concession stand for buying snacks and drinks within the theater's lobby. Other features included are film posters, arcade games and washrooms. Stage theaters are sometimes converted into movie theaters by placing a screen in front of the stage and adding a projector; this conversion may be permanent, or temporary for purposes such as showing arthouse fare to an audience accustomed to plays. The familiar characteristics of relatively low admission and open seating can be traced to samuel Roxy rothafel, an early movie theater impresario. Many of these early theaters contain a balcony, an elevated level across the auditorium above the theater's rearmost seats. The rearward main floor "loge" seats were sometimes larger, softer, and more widely spaced and sold for a higher price.

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multiplex business plan

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At first, thesis the sound films incorporating synchronized dialogue—known as "talking pictures or "talkies"—were exclusively shorts; the earliest feature-length movies with recorded sound included only music and effects. The first feature film originally presented as a talkie was The jazz singer, released in October 1927. A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone, which was at the time the leading brand of sound-on-disc technology. Sound-on-film, however, would soon become the standard for talking pictures. By the early 1930s, the talkies were a global phenomenon.

In the United States, they helped secure hollywood's position as one of the world's most powerful cultural/commercial systems (see cinema of the United States ). In Europe (and, to a lesser degree, elsewhere the new development was treated with suspicion by many filmmakers and critics, who worried that a focus on dialogue would subvert the unique aesthetic virtues of soundless cinema. In Japan, philippines, where the popular film tradition integrated silent movie and live vocal performance, talking pictures were slow to take root. In India, sound was the transformative element that led to the rapid expansion of the nation's film industry. Cinema Odeon auditorium in Florence Interior of a 1950s style fine arts movie theater auditorium. A low pitch viewing floor is used. A typical raked (sloped) floor for a movie auditorium, which gives all viewers a clear view of the screen.

This experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a fairly high rate of speed. 13 The French Lumière brothers ' (louis and Auguste lumière) first film, sortie de l'usine lumière de lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. to the late 1920s, movie theaters showed silent films, which were films with no synchronized recorded sound or dialogue. In silent films for entertainment, the dialogue was transmitted through muted gestures, mime and title cards, which contained a written indication of the plot or key dialogue. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, synchronized dialogue was only made practical in the late 1920s with the perfection of the audion amplifier tube and the introduction. During silent films, a pianist, Theater organist, or in large cities, even a small orchestra would often play music to accompany the films.


Pianists and organists would either play from sheet music or improvise ; an orchestra would play from sheet music. Talkies edit main article: sound film 1908 poster advertising gaumont 's sound films. The Chronomégaphone, designed for large halls, employed compressed air to amplify the recorded sound. 15 A "talkie" or sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decades passed before sound motion pictures were made commercially practical. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, and amplification and recording quality were also inadequate. Innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923. The primary steps in the commercialization of sound cinema were taken in the mid- to late 1920s.

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11 Still photographs were used later on after the widespread availability of photography technologies after the mid-19th century. Magic lantern shows were often given at fairs or as part of magic shows. A magic lantern show mom at the 1851 World's fair caused a sensation among the audience. 12 Silent film edit main article: Silent film l'idéal Cinéma at Aniche, opened on 23 november 1905, during the silent film era, and is the oldest still-active cinema in the world. The next significant step towards movies was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828, when paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called " persistence of vision ". Roget showed that when a series of still images are shown rapidly in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement, an optical illusion, since the image is not actually moving.

multiplex business plan

The term "theater" comes from the Old French word "theatre from the 12th century and ".directly from Latin theatrum which meant 'play-house, theater; stage; spectators in a theater which in turn came from the Greek word "theatron which meant "theater; the people in the theater;. 9 History edit a three slide projector with a "dissolve transition" feature from 1886. Magic lantern shows edit main article: Magic lantern The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows. Magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen. These slides were originally hand-painted. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s and the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s increased the brightness of the images. 10 The magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, which was achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides. Typically, two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part that was to move, would be placed one on top hitler of the other and projected together, then the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc.

been the preferred spelling, while in the uk, australia, canada and elsewhere it is theatre. 4 However, some us theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the national Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema /sɪnɪmə/, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema /kɪnɪmə/. 5 6 7 The latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic ultimately derive from Greek κινμα, κινήματος (kinema, kinematos)—"movement "motion". In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is usually reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions, mostly applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen (formerly sometimes sheet ) and the big screen (contrasted with the smaller screen of a television set). Specific to north American term is the movies, while specific terms in the uk are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit (or fleapit ). A screening room is a small theater, often a private one, such as for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures or in a large private residence. The etymology of the term "movie theater" involves the term "movie which is a "shortened form of moving picture in the cinematographic sense" that was first used in 1896 8 and "theater which originated in the ".late 14c., meaning an "open air place in ancient.

A great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films to blockbusters to documentaries. The smallest movie theaters have a single viewing room with a single screen. In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens. The largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes —a design developed in the us in the 1960s—have up to thirty screens. The audience members often sit on padded seats, which in most theaters are set on a sloped floor, with the highest part at the rear of the theater. Movie theaters often sell soft drinks, popcorn, and candy, and some theaters sell hot fast food. In some jurisdictions, movie theaters are licensed to sell alcoholic drinks.

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The view from the projectionist's booth at Ultimate palace cinema. The picture the projector is displaying is the 1997. A cinema auditorium in Australia, a movie theater/theatre (. American English 1 cinema british English ) 2 or cinema hall indian English ) 3 is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment. Most, but not all, theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket. Some movie theaters, however, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies which charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue, sounds and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have been used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create and transport a physical film print on a heavy reel.


multiplex business plan
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