That said, it can be advantages far easier to uncover the deeper layers of meaning within a story if you work through parts of the story with a friend. Hearing and discussing others' viewpoints almost always leads to a deeper understanding of the text developing. Because interpretations are insightful opinions, they are not fixed. This means that different readers might well develop different interpretations. This is why an interpretation needs to be supported by giving a reference to whatever it was in the text that caused it to arise - usually in the form of a"tion. This is covered later but for more on this, see also the English biz guide to essay writing ( click here ). As well as interpreting, do not be shy of evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the author has been. You might consider this in the light of the story's likely effects on different kinds of reader, for example, a modern reader and the text's original readers.
This is a very important tool for the author as it both develops the plot and creates the important effects of tension and suspense. All of the above work sometimes subtly, sometimes obviously, to develop the story's themes. Much more on all of the above later! It's important also to realise that interpretation is never about stating facts. An interpretation is, by its very nature, an opinion or point of view. You can't ask the author about their intentions so you have to develop insights essays into what they might have been, and these can only be based on evidence from the text and, sometimes, details of the author's context. This is why examiners are not keen when students merely trot out what are often rather obviously the opinions of others - those, perhaps, of a teacher or taken from a study guide, for example. What examiners like to see are individual ideas - your own ideas, based on insights that are supported with a reference to the text in question.
How characters are described ; when and where they appear ; how they speak (through the literary device of dialogue and how they act and interact are all important things to examine and consider. The time, place and situation in which the story unfolds). This can add to the story in surprisingly important and subtle ways. It is always worthy of your close attention. Setting creates a sense of place that can add to believability and realism. Importantly, setting is also frequently used to help create a particular mood or atmosphere, one that should help the reader engage more closely - and often emotionally - with the story. The ordering of events.
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Try to develop insights into why dickens might have written the passage using such language,. What might his purpose might have been? When you do this, you are interpreting the text. The two key questions to ask of a test are how and write why. These must always take centre stage in all of your essay writing for they are at the core of what interpretation is about. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled.
It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye, arid vast piles of building full of windows where there was a rattling and a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously. From Hard Times by Charles Dickens to recognise the existence of layers of meaning, you need to be more than usually attentive to the words on the page and to the effects these create in the mind. This means being reflective and insightful. To become aware of the levels of meaning at important points in a story you will need to ask yourself the questions what, how and why concerning aspects of the story such as: narration - these are the effects created by the author's chosen narrative. Characters - characters are created and presented in ways that manipulate the reader's reaction toward them.
Literary language often relies on the use of literary devices. These work to involve the reader and deepen the engagement with the text. Some important and common literary devices are non-literal description (such as metaphor, simile and personification dialogue and, a very important one: irony. Poetry uses concentrated literary language as you can imagine, but prose writers of fiction (and sometimes non-fiction) also rely on its use. Below is a brief extract from a story by Charles Dickens that uses fairly obvious examples of literary language to create effects on the reader, most especially to create imagery that will help the reader imagine the scene in a particular way.
Much more importantly, however, dickens' choices of literary language help give the reader a clue as to his own attitude towards what he is describing. This is an important way in which an author can develop the themes of their writing. The words in red are all uses of literary language. Can you work out just how these words and phrases are working on the reader - perhaps you can label the method used, too? Finally, what effect might the writer have wanted to achieve and for what purpose? Effect created method used purpose intended. Always keep this triplet in mind as, along with p e e, it is one of the most important techniques you need when analysing and writing you exam essay. Effect method purpose: the key to an effective analysis of language whether your text is a story, a poem, a play or even a piece of non-fiction or media writing!
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Try hard to get right back to those initial ideas, thoughts and feelings and you'll be on your way to a truly great analysis and essay. Class novels are likely to be what is called 'theme driven rather than 'plot driven'. This means paper that the story - its characters, settings and action - have been written to persuade as much as entertain. Writers create stories that absorb and emotionally involve their reader, why? In order to convince the reader to view some aspects of the world in a particular way - the author's way! These message are the story's themes and they are important to look for and discover. Themes involve human values in the real world outside of the story. The story is the writer's means of persuading the reader to consider these ideas in a particular way - the writer's way!
Practising these is an excellent way to prepare and reduce the tension of the ca or exam. What's needed to gain a high grade? Most marks are given for the quality of your interpretation. This means that you need to become something of an expert at finding the various layers of meaning that exist within your text - reading 'between the lines'. Meaning can be 'shaped' and 'layers of meaning' created when a writer uses language in literary ways This is language that creates imagery and connotations, thus developing emotion and feelings. Various literary techniques can help a writer achieve this. Never forget what a story. It began as ideas, thoughts and feelings that a writer felt the need to communicate to a reader, and ended as the text you've just read.
and don't forget to read the rest of this guide, too - it will guide your reading so that you know exactly what to look for as you read. Pre-1914 stories can pose particular difficulties - not surprisingly as they were often written with an older, highly educated audience in mind. Understanding these texts really can become much easier if you have a study guide to refer to as you read them. Try the links above. You can never know all there is to know about a text so, if you've read it in class and re-read it again at home (along, perhaps, with a study guide then rest peacefully in the knowledge that you've done all you can. Do read this guide, too, though as it will guide you to what examiners are looking for. Be sure to ask your teacher for some past ca or exam questions.
What causes lost marks? A lack of knowledge of the text. It's easily the number one cause of lost marks, in controlled assessments, coursework and exams. This might not be good news if it applies to you, but there's no escaping the fact that you can't write in detail about a text you don't know well. There's no time like the present to get it sorted and get reading. But wait - there's help at hand. First, focus you're mind not on the hard essay work involved, but on the higher grade it will bring. Kick future hassle, frustration and disappointment into touch by recognising the benefits of re-reading and reflecting deeply on your story - with the essay question firmly in mind as you re-read.
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Englishbiz - story Analysis 2017 Steve campsall analysing a story, download free guides, writing a controlled assessment (CA) or exam essay based on a story can seem difficult not only because stories are report often long, but also because the language of story-telling is often. What is there to say about its form, structure and language? You're about to find out just what examiners look for and the way to a higher grade. Do you need help with writing your essay? There's a guide to structuring essays here. Are you revising for an exam? There's additional help here. If you need a specific study guide click here or a link below.