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However, if normal feedback were not inhibited as usual, then signals feeding back from late stages of multi-sensory processing might influence earlier stages such that tones could activate vision. Cytowic and Eagleman find support for the disinhibition idea in the so-called acquired forms 5 of synesthesia that occur in non-synesthetes under certain conditions: temporal lobe epilepsy, 39 head trauma, stroke, and brain tumors. They also note that it can likewise occur during stages of meditation, deep concentration, sensory deprivation, or with use of psychedelics such as lsd or mescaline, and even, in some cases, marijuana. 5 However, synesthetes report that common stimulants, like caffeine and cigarettes do not affect the strength of their synesthesia, nor does alcohol. 5 :13740 a very different theoretical approach to synesthesia is that based on ideasthesia. According to this account, synesthesia is a phenomenon mediated by the extraction of the meaning of the inducing stimulus. Thus, synesthesia may be fundamentally a semantic phenomenon.

34 In August 2017 a research article in the journal Social neuroscience reviewed studies with fmri to determine if persons who experience autonomous Sensory meridian Response are experiencing a form of synesthesia. While a determination has not yet been made, there is anecdotal evidence that this may be the case, based on significant and consistent differences from the control group, in terms of functional connectivity within neural pathways. It is unclear whether this will lead to asmr being included as a form of existing writing synesthesia, or if a new type will be considered. 35 Mechanism edit main article: neural basis of synesthesia regions thought to be cross-activated in grapheme-color synesthesia (greengrapheme recognition area, red V4 color area) the neurological correlates of synesthesia had not been established. 37 Dedicated regions of the brain are specialized for given functions. Increased cross-talk between regions specialized for different functions may account for the many types of synesthesia. For example, the additive experience of seeing color when looking at graphemes might be due to cross-activation of the grapheme-recognition area and the color area called V4 (see figure). 36 This is supported by the fact that grapheme-color synesthetes are able to identify the color of a grapheme in their peripheral vision even when they cannot consciously identify the shape of the grapheme. 36 An alternative possibility is disinhibited feedback, or a reduction in the amount of inhibition along normally existing feedback pathways. 38 Normally, excitation and inhibition are balanced.

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This may be related to the so-called mirror neurons present in the motor areas of the brain, which have also been linked to empathy. 30 Lexical-gustatory synesthesia edit main article: Lexical-gustatory synesthesia this is another rare form of synesthesia where certain tastes are writing experienced when hearing words. For example, the word basketball might taste like waffles. The documentary 'derek tastes Of Earwax' gets its name from this phenomenon, in references to pub owner James Wannerton who experiences this particular sensation whenever he hears the name spoken. 31 32 It is estimated that.2 of the population has this form of synesthesia. 33 Other forms edit Other forms of synesthesia have been reported, but little has been done to analyze them scientifically. There are at least 80 different types of synesthesia.

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Ordinal linguistic personification normally co-occurs with other forms of synesthesia such as grapheme-color synesthesia. Misophonia edit main article: Misophonia misophonia is a neurological disorder in which negative experiences (anger, fright, hatred, disgust) are triggered by specific sounds. Richard Cytowic suggests that misophonia is related to, or perhaps a variety of, synesthesia. 28 Miren Edelstein and her colleagues have compared misophonia to synesthesia in terms of connectivity between different brain regions as well as specific symptoms. They formed the hypothesis that "a pathological distortion of connections between the auditory cortex and limbic structures could cause a form of sound-emotion synesthesia." 29 Mirror-touch mattress synesthesia edit main article: Mirror-touch synesthesia this is a rare form of synesthesia where individuals feel the same sensation. For instance, when such a synesthete observes someone being tapped on their shoulder, the synesthete involuntarily feels a tap on their own shoulder as well. People with this type of synesthesia have been shown to have higher empathy levels compared to the general population.

25 Auditory-tactile synesthesia edit In auditory-tactile synesthesia, certain sounds can induce sensations in parts of the body. For example, someone with auditory-tactile synesthesia may experience that hearing a specific word feels like touch in one specific part of the body or may experience that certain sounds can create a sensation in the skin without being touched. It is one of the least common forms of synesthesia. 26 Ordinal linguistic personification edit main article: Ordinal linguistic personification Ordinal-linguistic personification (olp, or personification for short) is a form of synesthesia in which ordered sequences, such as ordinal numbers, week-day names, months and alphabetical letters are associated with personalities or genders ( Simner hubbard. For example, the number 2 might be a young boy with a short temper, or the letter G might be a busy mother with a kind face. Although this form of synesthesia was documented as early as the 1890s ( Flournoy 1893 ; Calkins 1893 ) researchers have, until recently, paid little attention to this form (see history of synesthesia research ). This form of synesthesia was named as olp in the contemporary literature by julia simner and colleagues 27 although it is now also widely recognised by the term "sequence-personality" synaesthesia.

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My favorite music has lines that extend horizontally beyond the 'screen' area." Individuals rarely agree on what color a given sound. B flat might be orange for one person and blue for another. Composers Franz liszt and nikolai rimsky-korsakov famously disagreed on the colors of music keys. Spatial sequence synesthesia edit Those with spatial sequence synesthesia (SSS) tend to see numerical sequences as points in space. For instance, the number 1 might be farther away and the number 2 might be closer.

People with sss may have superior memories; in one study, they were able to recall past events and memories far nios better and in far greater detail than those without the condition. They also see months or dates in the space around them. Some people see time like a clock above and around them. 23 24 Number form edit main article: Number form A number form from one of Francis Galton's subjects (1881). 9 Note how the first 12 digits correspond to a clock face. A number form is a mental map of numbers that automatically and involuntarily appears whenever someone who experiences number-forms synesthesia thinks of numbers. Number forms were first documented and named in 1881 by Francis Galton in "The visions of Sane persons".

Grapheme-color synesthesia edit main article: Grapheme-color synesthesia in one of the most common forms of synesthesia, individual letters of the alphabet and numbers (collectively referred to as graphemes ) are "shaded" or "tinged" with a color. While different individuals usually do not report the same colors for all letters and numbers, studies with large numbers of synesthetes find some commonalities across letters (e.g. A is likely to be red). 17 Chromesthesia edit main article: Chromesthesia another common form of synesthesia is the association of sounds with colors. For some, everyday sounds such as doors opening, cars honking, or people talking can trigger seeing colors. For others, colors are triggered when musical notes or keys are being played.


People with synesthesia related to music may also have perfect pitch because their ability to see/hear colors aids them in identifying notes or keys. 22 The colors triggered by certain sounds, and any other synesthetic visual experiences, are referred to as photisms. According to richard Cytowic, 5 chromesthesia is "something like fireworks voice, music, and assorted environmental sounds such as clattering dishes or dog barks trigger color and firework shapes that arise, move around, and then fade when the sound ends. Sound often changes the perceived hue, brightness, scintillation, and directional movement. Some individuals see music on a "screen" in front of their faces. For Deni simon, music produces waving lines "like oscilloscope configurations lines moving in color, often metallic with height, width and, most importantly, depth.

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So the nonsynesthete will need to create a mnemonic device to remember a sequence (like dates in a diary but the synesthete can simply reference their spatial visualizations. 21 There are two overall forms of synesthesia: projective synesthesia: people evernote who project will see actual colors, forms, or shapes when stimulated (the widely understood version of synesthesia). Associative synesthesia: people who feel a very strong and involuntary connection between plan the stimulus and the sense that it triggers. For example, in chromesthesia (sound to color a projector may hear a trumpet, and see an orange triangle in space, while an associator might hear a trumpet, and think very strongly that it sounds "orange". Synesthesia can occur between nearly any two senses or perceptual modes, and at least one synesthete, solomon Shereshevsky, experienced synesthesia that linked all five senses. Medical citation needed types of synesthesia are indicated by using the notation x y, where x is the "inducer" or trigger experience, and y is the "concurrent" or additional experience. For example, perceiving letters and numbers (collectively called graphemes ) as colored would be indicated as grapheme color synesthesia. Similarly, when synesthetes see colors and movement as a result of hearing musical tones, it would be indicated as tone (color, movement) synesthesia. While nearly every logically possible combination of experiences can occur, several types are more common than others.

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13 Despite the commonalities which permit definition of the broad phenomenon of synesthesia, individual experiences vary in numerous ways. This variability was first noticed early in synesthesia research. 18 Some synesthetes report that vowels are more strongly colored, while for others consonants are more strongly colored. 17 Self reports, interviews, and autobiographical notes by synesthetes demonstrate a great degree of variety in types of synesthesia, intensity of synesthetic perceptions, awareness of the perceptual discrepancies between synesthetes and non-synesthetes, and the ways synesthesia is used in work, creative processes, and daily life. 13 19 Synesthetes are very likely to participate in creative activities. 20 It has been suggested that individual development of perceptual and cognitive skills, in addition to one's cultural environment, produces the variety in awareness and practical use of synesthetic phenomena. 14 19 Synesthesia may also give a memory advantage. In one study conducted by julia simner of the University essay of Edinburgh it was found that spatial sequence synesthetes have a built-in and automatic mnemonic reference.

13 The automatic and ineffable nature of a synesthetic experience means that the pairing may not seem out of the ordinary. This involuntary and consistent nature helps define synesthesia as a real experience. Most synesthetes report that their experiences are pleasant or neutral, although, in rare cases, synesthetes report that their experiences can lead to a degree of sensory overload. 17 Though often stereotyped in the popular media as a medical condition or neurological aberration, many synesthetes themselves do not perceive their synesthetic experiences as a handicap. To the contrary, some report it as a gift—an additional "hidden" sense—something they would not want to miss. Most synesthetes become aware of their distinctive mode of perception in their childhood. Some have learned how to apply their ability in daily life and work. Synesthetes have used their abilities in memorization of names and telephone numbers, mental arithmetic, and more complex creative activities like producing visual art, music, and theater.

It has been suggested that synesthesia develops during childhood when children are intensively engaged with abstract concepts for the first time. This paper hypothesis referred to as semantic vacuum hypothesis explains why the most common forms of synesthesia are grapheme-color, spatial sequence and number form. These are usually the first abstract concepts that educational systems require children to learn. Only a few types of synesthesia have been scientifically evaluated. 13, awareness of synesthetic perceptions varies from person to person. 14, difficulties have been recognized in adequately defining synesthesia. 15 16, many different phenomena have been included in the term synesthesia union of the senses and in many cases the terminology seems to be inaccurate. A more accurate but significantly less common term may be ideasthesia.

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For other uses, see, synesthesia (disambiguation). This article is about the perceptual phenomenon. For the piano keyboard video game, see. Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. 3 4 5 6, people who report a lifelong history of such experiences are known as synesthetes. Contents, overview edit, in one common form of synesthesia, known as grapheme-color synesthesia or color-graphemic synesthesia, letters or numbers are perceived as inherently colored. 7 8, in spatial-sequence, or number form synesthesia, numbers, months of the year, or days of the week elicit precise locations in space (for example, 1980 may gpa be "farther away" than 1990 or may appear as a three-dimensional map (clockwise or counterclockwise). 9 10, synesthetic associations can occur in any combination and any number of senses or cognitive pathways. 11, little is known about how synesthesia develops.


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