The longman handbook for writers and readers

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Three different medieval churches were built to house three different "true skulls of John the baptist." In the fourteenth century, it became increasingly common for con-artists to sell fake relics to unsuspecting victims. Chaucer writes of this practice in his depiction of the pardoner in his Canterbury tales. There, the pardoner merrily sells pig-bones, which he claims are the bones of saints, to other travelers. Probably the most famous relic in Arthurian legends is the holy Grail, variously described in Christian iconography as being (1) the cup from which Christ drank at the last Supper, (2) the cup used to catch the blood that spurted from Christ's side after the. Renaissance : There are two common uses of the word. (1) The term originally described a period of cultural, technological, and artistic vitality during the economic expansion in Britain in the late 1500s and early 1600s. Thinkers at this time and later saw themselves as rediscovering and redistributing the legacy of classical Greco-roman culture by renewing forgotten studies and artistic practices, hence the name "renaissance" or "rebirth." They believed they were breaking with the days of "ignorance" and "superstition" represented. The renaissance saw the rise of new poetic forms in the sonnet and a flowering of drama in the plays of Shakespeare, jonson, and Marlowe.

It was thought that the spirits of these saints continued to be connected to their physical remains. Thus, possessing a part of saint Julian's body would ensure that the spirit of saint Julian would linger near that body-part, and be close at hand to aid the possessor. When a medieval Christian wanted divine intervention, he might pray near the relic and ask that saint to intercede on his behalf. An important note for confused modern Protestants-in medieval Catholic doctrine, "intercession" does not mean worshipping the saints per se, but rather asking the deceased saint to pray to god on the living individual's behalf, much like a modern Protestant might ask his or her neighbor. Many non-Catholics do not understand the distinction, and they accordingly accuse medieval Christians of idolatry. Medieval churches usually included one nature or more relics under, on, or within the altar, and shrines might be built around immobile relics. These relics were considered especially valuable, and they were often sealed in gold or silver containers, encrusted with gems, or placed inside silken reliquary purses. Often special objects such as a bishop's staff or a king's crown might be constructed with a minor relic inside. For instance, king Charlemagne's sword (c. 800 CE) was supposedly designed so that its hilt contained two splinters of the true cross. With poor communication between regions, certain confusions were bound to occur.

the longman handbook for writers and readers

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Register dialect : A dialectal variation used only for a particular circumstance or for a specific purpose. For instance, the ceremonial language of sermons, weddings, and funerals often uses words like brethren or beloved. These words are rarely used outside of that specialized register. Relative clause : tba under "Clause" link. Relic : The physical remains of a saint or biblical figure, or an object closely associated with a saint, biblical figure, or a miracle. Sample relics might be saint Veronica's veil, a sandal of the virgin Mary, the skull of John the baptist, a hair or fingernail of the disciple mark, a bone from saint John the divine, a splinter or fragment from Christ's cross, or the lance that. In medieval Christianity, such relics were thought to be powerful, holy items hippie imbued with divine potency. In Christian belief, the spirits of the saints continued to exist after their deaths, and these spirits would eventually return to their bodies after God resurrects their physical forms on the judgment day. Since the spirits still existed, however, they could theoretically interact with the physical world.

the longman handbook for writers and readers

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Examples are found in the Egyptian book of the dead, the bible, greek, latin, and Provençal verse, and in many, many ballads. Regional dialect : Another term for geographic dialect. Regional literature : Literature that accurately seeks to portray or is associated with a particular geographic region or people. Often regional literature is set within a particular area, strange and the writer or poet tries to capture the customs, dialect, behavior, and historical background of that region. Harper lee's to kill a mockingbird and Thomas Hardy's Return of the native are two examples of regional novels. Eudora welty and William faulkner are often held up as examples of southern regional writers generally. More specifically, appalachian poets include ron Rash, danny marion, lynn Powell, and Rita sims quillen.

Reflexive construction : a verb combined with a reflexive pronoun functioning as the direct object. For instance, in Spanish, yo me llavo i wash myself. In English, this often creates a redundant phrase, such as "I repent me of my promise." refrain : A line or set of lines at the end of a stanza or section of a longer poem or song-these lines repeat at regular intervals in other. Sometimes the repetition involves minor changes in wording. A refrain might consist of a nonsense word (such as Shakespeare's "With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino" in the song from As you like it a single word (such as "nevermore" in poe's "The raven or even an entire separate stanza. If the refrain is meant to be sung by all the auditors listening, such as in Burns' "Auld Lang Syne the refrain is often called a chorus. The device is ancient.

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the longman handbook for writers and readers

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Received pronunciation : The accent used by upper class British citizens-usually considered a prestigious or "classy" pronunciation. Linguists refer to this accent by the abbreviation. One personal aside-for any computer users reading this who are working with speech recognition software, my wife has found that artificially imitating an "RP" accent almost doubles her computer's consistency in paragraph speech recognition for voice commands-at least when working with Macintosh software! reception theory : a variant of reader response theory that emphasizes how each individual reader has a part in receiving (i.e, interpetting) the text. German scholar Hans-Robert jauss in the late 1960s was the primary advocate. The central concern in this theory is called a "horizon of expectation. E., that a reader's experience of textual meaning will dramatically alter depending on the time and place of the reader.

This idea contrasts radically with the new Historicists or biographical critics who argue that textual meaning will dramatically alter depending on the time and place the author wrote the work.) More detailed explanation is available here. Recognition : see anagnorisis. Reconstruction : A hypothetical earlier form of a word that probably existed, but for which no direct evidence is available. Linguists normally mark reconstructions by placing an asterisk in front of them. This marks them as a hypothetical word. For instance, the Indo-european word *ekwos -which developed into equus in Latin, ech in Old Irish, and eoh in Old English, is a reconstruction. Recto : see discussion under quarto or examine this chart.

The movement contrasts with (and is often used as an antonym for) literary forms such as the romance, science-fiction, fantasy, magic realism, mythology, surrealistic art, modernism and postmodernism. Note that the earlier literary movement known as naturalism is often used as a precursor and antonym for realism, even though both literary movements share many similarities. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between naturalism and realism. Some writers are classified as part of both movements. Personally, i distinguish between them by noting how naturalism goes out of its way to obsessively and grimly point out the limitations of human potential.


Realism shares this concern, but seems less obsessed with this point. My distinction, however, is one not generally accepted by literary critics. Often, writers like thomas Hardy are said to be both naturalistic and realistic, for instance. Examining the wide variety of writers called "realists" at one time or another shows how flexible the term. These writers include such diverse artists as Mark Twain, Flaubert, balzac, zola, guy de maupassant, tolstoy, gogol, gorki, william Howells, william Burroughs, Thomas Hardy, and Norman mailer. Dramatists normally considered realists include henrik ibsen, george bernard Shaw, and Strindberg. Rearstage : The section of the stage farthest away from the viewing audience, the back of the visible stage as opposed to "backstage" and out of sight. Rebus : a visual pun in which a written sign stands for a different meaning than its normal one-usually because the two words sound alike. For instance, the letters c and U sound like the words see and you in the instant messenger version of "c u later!" The rebus is a common feature in Egyptian hieroglyphic writings and Babylonian cuneiform.

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Typically, "realism" involves careful description of everyday life, "warts and all often the lives of middle and lower class characters in the case of socialist realism. In general, realism seeks to avoid supernatural, transcendental, or surreal events. It tends to focus as much on the everyday, the mundane, and the normal as events that are extraordinary, exceptional, or extreme. Cuddon notes, realism "more crudely. Suggests jackets off, sleeves rolled up, 'no nonsense attitudes toward literary art (773). (2) Secondly and more specifically, resume realism refers to a literary movement in America, europe, and England that developed out of naturalism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although realism and the concern for aspects of verisimilitude have been components of literary art to one degree or another in nearly all centuries, the term realism also applies more specifically to the tendency to create detailed, probing analyses of the way "things really are. This tendency reveals itself in the growing mania for photography (invented 1839 the tendency toward hyper-realistic paintings and sculpture, the continuing rise of the popular prose novel, the growth of "realism" in philosophical movements, and in the increasingly realistic stage productions during the nineteenth and.

the longman handbook for writers and readers

For instance, in the first tale in The mabinogion, "Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed Pwyll promises to give gwawl son of Clud whatever he requests. Gwawl demands that Pwyll give him his wife, rhiannon, much to Pwyll's dismay! In the French Erec et Enide, we see the knight Erec involved in such a motif. In The wife of Bath's Tale, the rapist knight makes a rash boon to the aged hag-and the hag later claims that boon before Gwenevere's court, demanding that the knight marry her. Räuberroman (German, "Robber-novel The german term for a picaresque novel. Realism : An elastic and ambiguous term with two meanings. (1) First, it refers generally to any artistic or literary portrayal of life in a faithful, accurate manner, unclouded by false ideals, literary conventions, or misplaced aesthetic glorification and beautification of the world. It is a theory or tendency in writing to depict events in human life in a matter-of-fact, straightforward manner. It is an attempt to reflect life "as it actually is"-a concept in some ways similar to what the Greeks would call mimesis.

and radical innocence was its essence. The state of innocence was thought to be the ideal one for humanity. Radical innocence was the ability of an adult to maintain a child-like sense of wonder, faith, and goodness in spite of being aware of the cruelties, injustices, and heartaches of the world. The term has become something of a catchphrase in modernist and postmodernist writings. See for instance, yeats'"tion below: Considering that, all hatred driven hence, the soul recovers radical innocence And learns at last that it is self-delighting, self-appeasing, self-affrighting, And that its own sweet will is heaven's will. william Butler yeats, "A Prayer for my daughter" (1920) raisonneur (French, "Reasoner a character in continental literature whose purpose is similar to that of a chorus in Greek drama,. E., this choric figure remains at a distance from the main action and provides a reasoned commentary about what takes place. However, a raisonneur doesn't necessarily sing like the chorus, and the character appears in other genres of literature (short stories, novels, poems) rather than in dramatic works. Rash boon : A motif in folklore and in Celtic and Arthurian literature in which an individual too hastily promises to fulfill another character's request without hearing exactly what that request.

This area tree includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. Literary terms and Definitions: r, this page is under perpetual construction! It was last updated April 24, 2018. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. D e, f g, h i, j k, l m, n o,. R s, t u, v w x y z radical innocence : The romantics valued innocence as something pure, wholesome, fulfilling, natural, and individualistic.

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the longman handbook for writers and readers
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Arranged in Alphabetical Order. Liu,., & young,. An exploration of participative motivations in a community-based online English extensive reading contest with respect to gender difference.

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