In 1887, the qing upgraded the island's administration from taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province to fujian-taiwan-Province, the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at taipei. This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad. Japanese rule main articles: taiwan under Japanese rule and Republic of Formosa japanese colonial soldiers march taiwanese captured after the tapani Incident from the tainan jail to court, 1915. As the qing dynasty was defeated in the first Sino-japanese war (18941895 taiwan, along with Penghu and liaodong Peninsula, were ceded in full sovereignty to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Inhabitants on taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China. Very few taiwanese saw this as feasible. 53 On, a group of pro-qing high officials proclaimed the republic of Formosa to resist short impending Japanese rule. Japanese forces entered the capital at tainan and quelled this resistance on 54 guerrilla fighting continued periodically until about 1902 and ultimately took the lives of 14,000 taiwanese,.5 of the population. 55 several subsequent rebellions against the japanese (the beipu uprising of 1907, the tapani incident of 1915, and the musha incident of 1930) were all unsuccessful but demonstrated opposition to japanese colonial rule.
The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains. During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese from different oliver regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from quanzhou and Zhangzhou, and between southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines. Northern taiwan and the penghu Islands were the scene of subsidiary campaigns in the sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied keelung on, but were repulsed from Tamsui a few days later. The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the keelung Campaign ended in stalemate. The pescadores Campaign, beginning on, was a french victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both keelung and the penghu archipelago after the end of the war.
33 51 The company began to import labourers from Fujian and Penghu (Pescadores many of whom settled. 49 In 1626, the Spanish Empire landed on and occupied northern taiwan, at the ports of keelung and Tamsui, as a base to extend their trading. This colonial period lasted 16 years until 1642, when the last Spanish fortress fell to dutch forces. Following the fall of the ming dynasty, koxinga (Zheng Chenggong a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort zeelandia in 1662, expelling the dutch Empire and military from the island. Koxinga established the kingdom of Tungning (16621683 with his capital at tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing, who ruled from 1662 to 1682, and Zheng Keshuang, who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the qing dynasty era. 49 Qing rule main article: taiwan under Qing rule hunting deer, painted in 1746 In 1683, following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi lang of southern Fujian, the qing dynasty formally annexed taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction. The qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights. Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter taiwan.
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Prehistoric taiwan main article: Prehistory of taiwan a young Tsou man taiwan was joined to the mainland in the late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Fragmentary human remains dated 20,000 to 30,000 years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artifacts of a paleolithic culture. 42 43 Around 6,000 years ago, taiwan was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China. They are believed to be the ancestors of today's taiwanese aborigines, whose languages belong paragraph to the austronesian language family, but show much greater diversity than the rest of the family, which spans a huge area from Maritime southeast Asia west to madagascar and east. This has led linguists to propose taiwan as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across southeast Asia and the pacific and Indian Oceans. 46 47 Han Chinese fishermen began settling in the penghu islands in the 13th century.
48 Hostile tribes, and a lack of valuable trade products, meant that few outsiders visited the main island until the 16th century. 48 During the 16th century, visits to the coast by fishermen from Fujian, as well as Chinese and Japanese pirates, became more frequent. 48 Opening in the 17th century main articles: Dutch Formosa, spanish Formosa, and Kingdom of Tungning The dutch East India company attempted to establish a trading outpost on the penghu Islands (Pescadores) in 1622, but were driven off by ming forces. 49 In 1624, the company established a stronghold called Fort zeelandia on the coastal islet of tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, tainan. 33 When the dutch arrived, they found southwestern taiwan already frequented by a transient Chinese population numbering close to 1,500. 50 david Wright, a scottish agent of the company who lived on the island in the 1650s, described the lowland areas of the island as being divided among 11 chiefdoms ranging in size from two settlements. Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent.
Through its rapid development the entire formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan". In his daoyi zhilüe (1349 wang dayuan used " liuqiu " as a name for the island of taiwan, or the part of it closest to penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the ryukyu islands in general or okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name ryūkyū is the japanese form of liúqiú. The name also appears in the book of sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the ryukyus, taiwan or even luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China it has also been known under various names throughout its existence.
Shortly after the roc's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" ( Zhōngguó ( ) to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng central" or "middle and guó state, nation-state d a term. 37 During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had fled to taiwan upon losing the Chinese civil War, it was commonly referred to as " Nationalist China " (or " Free china to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or " Red China. 39 It was a member of the United Nations representing " China " until 1971, when it lost its seat to the people's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the republic of China has become commonly known as "Taiwan after the island that comprises 99 of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially roc government publications, the name is written as "Republic of China (Taiwan "Republic of China/Taiwan or sometimes "Taiwan (ROC)." 40 The republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name " Chinese taipei " due to diplomatic. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since 1984, and its name as an observer at the world health Organization. 41 History main articles: History of taiwan and History of the republic of China see the history of China article for historical information in the Chinese mainland before 1949.
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The name formosa ( ) dates from 1542, verification needed when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha formosa beautiful island. 24 25 The name "Formosa" eventually "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. 27 In the early 17th century, the dutch East India company established a commercial post at Fort zeelandia (modern-day anping, tainan ) on a coastal sandbar called "tayouan after their ethnonym for a nearby taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly taivoan people, written by the dutch and. 29 This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, hokkien, as Peh-ōe-jī : tāi-oân / tâi-oân ) as the name of essay the sandbar and nearby area ( tainan ). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (, and ) in Chinese historical records. The area occupied by modern-day tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name ( ) was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of taiwan Prefecture.
20 21 The prc has consistently claimed sovereignty over taiwan and asserted the roc is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China policy the prc refuses diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the roc. Today, 18 countries maintain official ties with the roc but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Although taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the prc participates either refuse to grant membership to taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification or taiwanese independence, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. The prc has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by taiwan or if prc leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible. 22 The prc and roc standoff dates from the Chinese civil War and has extended through the first, second and third taiwan Strait crises to the present day. Contents Etymology see also: Chinese taipei, formosa, and Names of China metathesis various names for the island of taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period.
However, the resumption of the Chinese civil War led to the roc's loss of the mainland to the communists, and the flight of the roc government to taiwan in 1949. Although the roc continued to claim to be the legitimate government of China, its effective jurisdiction had, since the loss of hainan in 1950, been limited to taiwan and its surrounding islands, with the main island making up 99 of its de facto territory. As a founding member of the United Nations, the roc represented China at the un until 1971, when it lost its seat to the prc. In the early 1960s, taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, healthcare, 18 public education, economic freedom, and human development. C 13 19 The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.
It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the. The island of taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when, dutch and, spanish colonies opened the island to mass. After a brief rule by the. Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the. Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The qing ceded taiwan. Japan in 1895 after the sino-japanese war.
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For other uses, see, taiwan (disambiguation). "Republic of China" redirects here. For the people's Republic of China, see. For other uses, see, republic of China (disambiguation). State in East Asia, taiwan ( /taɪwɑn/ ( listen officially the. Republic of China roc is a state in, east Asia. 15 paperless 16 17, its neighbors include the, people's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, japan to the northeast, and the. Philippines to the south.