Midwifery dissertation literature review

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Europe edit main articles: Bologna process, european Higher Education Area, and European qualifications Framework since the convention on the recognition of qualifications concerning Higher Education in the european Region in 1997 and the bologna declaration in 1999, higher education systems in Europe are being harmonised. This system is gradually replacing the two-stage system previously used in some countries, and is combined with other elements such as the european Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ects) and the use of Diploma supplements to make comparisons between qualifications easier. The european Higher Education Area (ehea) was formally established in 2010 and as of September 2016 has 50 members. 31 Implementation of the various elements of the ehea varies. Twenty-four countries have fully implemented a national qualifications framework, and a further ten have a framework but have not yet certified it against the overarching framework ; in 38 countries ects credits are used for all higher education programmes; 31 countries have fully implemented diploma. This is an eight-level framework designed to allow cross-referencing of the various national qualifications frameworks. While it is not specific to higher education, the top four levels (58) correspond to the short cycle, first cycle, second cycle and third cycle of the ehea.

Degree holders are considered as engineering technologists in pakistan. The engineering degree in Bangladesh is Bachelor of Science in Engineering (. Medical Degree bachelor of Medicine bachelor of Surgery (mbbs dental Degree bachelor of Dental Surgery (bds paper computer Application Degree bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) and Master of Computer Application (MCA). Sri lanka edit Sri lanka as many other commonwealth countries follow the British system with its own distinctions. Degrees are approved by the University Grants Commission. Africa edit tunisia edit Grading in Tunisia is done essay on a scale of 0-20. The passing grade is 10 out of 20 which is 50 of the complete mark;. This grading system is used from middle-school up to university level. A phD thesis is even graded out. To get ahead on the academic ladder, one is strictly assessed numerically. That is; if you are a ba holder applying for an ma program you will be admitted according to how high your grades were during your undergraduate years.

midwifery dissertation literature review

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The arts, referring to the performing arts and literature, have the corresponding degrees: Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the master of Arts (MA). Management degrees are also classified under 'Arts' but is nowadays considered a major new stream, bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Master Of Business Administration (MBA). Science referring to the basic sciences and natural science (Biology, physics, Chemistry etc.) the corresponding degree are bachelor of Science (.) and its master is called Master of Science (.). Another new set of Information Technology degree conferred specially in the field of computer science, bachelor of Science in Information Technology (.) and Master of Science in Information Technology (.). The engineering degrees in India follow two same patterns, bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) and Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.). Both homework represents bachelor's degree in engineering. In pakistan, engineering degrees are bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) and Bachelor of Science in Engineering (. Both are same in curriculum, duration and pattern where.

midwifery dissertation literature review

A guide to writing the dissertation literature review

In this case, the convention is to include a country abbreviation with the university's name. For example, 'york (Can. and 'york (uk or 'newc (uk and 'newc (Aus.) are commonly used to denote degrees conferred by these universities where the potential for confusion exists, 27 and institution names are given in this form in the commonwealth Universities yearbook. 18 Abbreviations used for degrees vary between countries and institutions,. Ms indicates Master of Science in the us and places following American usage, but Master of Surgery in the uk and most Commonwealth countries, where the standard abbreviation for Master of Science is MSc. Common abbreviations include ba and ma for Bachelor and Master of Arts, bs/BSc and MS/MSc for Bachelor and Master of Science, md for Doctor of Medicine, and PhD for Doctor of Philosophy. 28 29 Online degree edit main article: Online degree an online degree is an academic degree (usually a college degree, but sometimes the term includes high school diplomas and non-degree certificate programs) that can be earned primarily or entirely on a distance learning basis through. Improvements in technology, the increasing use of the Internet worldwide, and the need for people to have flexible school schedules that enable them to work while attending school have led to a proliferation of online colleges that award associate's, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. 30 Degree systems by regions edit Asia edit bangladesh, India and pakistan edit bangladesh, India and pakistan mostly follow the colonial era British system for classification of degrees.

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midwifery dissertation literature review

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Laws on granting and use of degrees edit see also: Unaccredited institutions of higher education In many countries degrees may only be awarded by institutions authorised to do so by the resume national or regional government. Frequently governments will also regulate the use of university in names of businesses. This approach is followed, for example, by australia 13 and the United Kingdom. 14 The use of fake degrees by individuals, either obtained from a bogus institution or simply invented, is often covered by fraud laws. 15 16 Indicating earned degrees edit depending on culture and the degree earned, degrees may be indicated by a pre-nominal title, post-nominal letters, a choice of either, or not indicated at all. In countries influenced by the uk, post-nominal letters are the norm, with only doctorates granting a title, while titles are the norm in many northern European countries. Depending on the culture and the purpose of the listing, only the highest degree, a selection of degrees, or all degrees might be listed.

The awarding institution may also be shown, and it might be specified if a degree was at honours level, particularly where the honours degree is a separate qualification from the ordinary bachelor's degree. 17 For member thesis institutions of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, there is a standard list of abbreviations for university names given in the commonwealth Universities yearbook, but in practice many variations are used and the yearbook notes that the abbreviations used may not match those. 18 For some British universities it is traditional to use latin abbreviations, notably 'oxon' and 'cantab' for the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge respectively, 19 20 in spite of these having been superseded by English 'Oxf' and 'camb' in official university usage, 21 particularly. 22 Other Latin abbreviations commonly used include 'cantuar' for Lambeth degrees (awarded by the Archbishop of Canterbury 21 'dunelm' for Durham University, 23 24 'Ebor' for the University of York 25 and 'Exon' for the University of Exeter. 26 The Ancient universities of Scotland and the University of London have abbreviations that are the same in English and Latin. (see universities in the United Kingdom Post-nominal abbreviations for a more complete list and discussion of abbreviations for British universities.) Confusion can result from universities sharing similar names,. The University of York in the uk and York University in Canada, or Newcastle University in the uk and the University of Newcastle in Australia.

The practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world. The French terminology is tied closely to the original meanings of the terms. "bachelor is conferred upon French students who have successfully completed their secondary education and admits the student to university. When students graduate from university, they are awarded licence, much as the medieval teaching guilds would have done, and they are qualified to teach in secondary schools or proceed to higher-level studies. Spain had a similar structure: the term "Bachiller" was used for those who finished the secondary or high-school level education, known as "Bachillerato". The standard Spanish university 5-years degree was "Licenciado", (although there were a few 3-years associate degrees called "diplomaturas", from where the "diplomados" could move to study a related licenciatura ).


The highest level was "Doctor". Degrees awarded by institutions other than universities edit In the past, degrees have also been directly issued by authority of the monarch or by a bishop, rather than any educational institution. This practice has mostly died out. In Great Britain, lambeth Degrees are still awarded by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 10 The Archbishop of Canterbury's right to grant degrees is derived from Peter's Pence Act of 1533 which empowered the Archbishop to grant dispensations previously granted by the pope. 11 Among educational institutions, St david's College, lampeter was granted limited degree awarding powers by royal charter in the nineteenth century, despite not being a university. University college north Staffordshire was also granted degree awarding powers on its foundation in 1949, despite not becoming a university (as the University of keele ) until 1962. Following the Education Reform Act 1988, many educational institutions other than universities have been granted degree awarding powers, including higher education colleges and colleges of the University of London (many of which are now effectively universities in their own right). 12 Academic dress edit main article: Academic dress In most countries, gaining an academic degree entitles the holder to assume distinctive academic dress particular to the awarding institution, identifying the status of the individual wearing them.

A systematic review of the effect of midwifery care for the bladder

Further study, and in particular successful participation in and then moderating of disputations would earn one the master of Arts degree, from the latin magister, "master" (typically indicating a teacher entitling one to teach these subjects. Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, medicine or Theology, and earn first a bachelor's and then master or doctor's degrees in these subjects. Thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a fully qualified master hence the English word "graduate which is based on the latin gradus step. The evolution of the terminology of degrees edit The naming of degrees eventually became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar save became known as "master but those in theology, medicine, and law were known as "doctor". As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology, medicine and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the doctor of Philosophy (Ph. which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century german universities, is a more advanced degree than the master of Arts (M.A.).

midwifery dissertation literature review

Has gradually become less common outside theology and is now mostly used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more often for earned degrees. Studies outside theology, law, and medicine were then called "philosophy due to the renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation. The degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is a much later time and was not introduced in pollution England before 1900. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as sciences and humanities. The University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in civil Law in the late 12th century; it also conferred similar degrees in other subjects, including medicine. 9 The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, glasgow, aberdeen, and Edinburgh. Emergence of the bachelor's degree edit In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium ( grammar, rhetoric, and logic and the quadrivium ( arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music together known.

of apprenticeship for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, 8 but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. Today the terms "master "Doctor" (from the latin meaning literally: "teacher and "Professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university. (Most universities conferred the master of Arts, although the highest degree was often termed Master of Theology/divinity or Doctor of Theology/divinity depending on the place). The earliest doctoral degrees ( theology divinitatis Doctor (D.D. law legum Doctor (LL. C.L.) and medicine medicinæ doctor (M.D.,. M.) reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into these three fields. Over time, the.

To obtain a doctorate, a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and at least ten years for a post-graduate course. The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose" which were scholarly exercises practiced throughout the student's "career. 2 The doctorate ( Latin : doceo i teach) appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach ( Latin : licentia docendi ) at a medieval university. 5 Its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the bible. 5 The right to grant a licentia docendi was originally reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The Third council of the lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access now largely free of charge of all able applicants, who were, however, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic. 6 This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the slowly emancipating universities, but was granted trunk by the pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach ( licentia ubique docendi ). 6 However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree ( Baccalaureus it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching.

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Not to be confused with, academic ranks. An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in dissertation higher education, normally at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, typically including bachelor's, masters and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates, and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees (e.g. Associate degrees in the us or foundation degrees in the uk) while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. An early type of academic degree was the ijazah, issued at madrasahs in the medieval Islamic world since the 8th century. 1 2, the modern system of academic degrees later evolved and expanded in the medieval university, spreading across the world as the institution did. 3, emergence of the doctors and masters degrees and the licentiate edit, the origins of the doctorate licentia docendi can be traced back to the ijāzah al-tadrīs wa al-iftā' license to teach and issue legal opinions in the medieval Islamic madrasah education system. 2 4 The ijazat was equivalent to the doctor of Laws qualification and was developed during the 9th century after the formation of the madh'hab legal schools.


midwifery dissertation literature review
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