It is generally agreed that true writing of language (not only numbers) was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and possibly more. The two places where it is most certain that the essays concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient Sumer (in Mesopotamia around 3100 bc, and in Mesoamerica by 300 bc, 3 because no precursors have been found to either of these. Several Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the Olmec or Zapotec of Mexico. Independent writing systems also arose in Egypt around 3100 bc and in China around 1200 bc in Shang dynasty 4 but historians debate whether these writing systems were developed completely independently of Sumerian writing or whether either or both were inspired by sumerian writing via. That is, it is possible that the concept of representing language by using writing, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between the two regions. Ancient Chinese characters are considered by many to be an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the near East, 5 and because of the distinct differences between the mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography. 6 Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform, but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia.
In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto- writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from proto- writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. 2, contents, inventions of writing edit, see also: List of languages by first written accounts, sumer, an ancient civilization of southern. Mesopotamia, is believed to be the place where written language was first invented around 3100 bc, writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. See, history of writing ancient numbers for how the writing of numbers began.
WritingFix: prompts, lessons, and resources for writing
Therefore, if you have a source that apa does not include, apa suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and evolution use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th., 2nd printing). Contribute to readWriteThink / fAQs site demonstrations contact Us pause Play more, lessons, interactives, calendar activities, and more, right at your fingertips. Grades, k - 12, student Interactive Writing publishing Prose. Printing Press, grades, k - 12, student Interactive Writing poetry, acrostic poems. Grades 3 - 12, student Interactive Organizing summarizing.
Trading Card Creator more, energize and inform your teaching with publications, training, and networking. Upcoming event 2018 ncte annual Convention, raising Student voice: Speaking Out for Equity and Justice. November 1518, 2018 houston, texas 2018 ncte annual Convention "Raising Student voice: Speaking Out for Equity and Justice" more, get inspired and make connections with diverse and talented literacy professionals. Share your Story featured story, explore teacher Resources by Grade. The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks 1 and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.
This is called hanging indentation. Authors' names are inverted (last name first give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
Present the journal title in full. Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. For example: recall not, recall or, knowledge management Research practice not. Knowledge management Research and Practice. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put"s around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections. Please note: While the apa manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources.
The Elements of Style
For more information, please consult the. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th., 2nd printing). Paiz, elizabeth Angeli, jodi wagner, Elena lawrick, kristen moore, michael Anderson, lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, russell Keck. Last dubai Edited: 02:54:13, your reference list should appear trunk at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do not bold, underline, or use"tion marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. Basic Rules, all lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin.
and cover letter. First, book, marketplace, eligible educators can purchase high-quality, relevant books and educational resources for kids 0-18 at affordable prices. The inventory is curated based on the needs of our members. When you buy from. Coming soon: A new look for our same great content! We're working hard this summer on a redesign of the purdue owl. Our navigation menu and content will remain largely the same. Summary: apa (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the apa manual, offers examples for the general format of apa research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
Html, pdf, plagiarism, understand what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid this serious problem. Html, pdf, proofreading Grammar, learn to proofread for errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Html, pdf, proofreading Spelling, learn how to avoid common spelling errors. Html, pdf, taking an Essay exam, learn some strategies for crafting strong essays under pressure. Html, pdf, using evidence, learn strategies for supporting your claims and persuading your reader with evidence. Html, pdf, using Outlines, learn to organize your ideas when researching and writing. Html, pdf, writing, abstracts, learn how to briefly and objectively describe scholarly sources. Html pdf writing book reviews learn to apply analytical reading strategies to evaluate how well books accomplish their authors' intended goals.
Writing guides: Writing Tutorial Services: Indiana
Home, writing, guides, doctoral Dissertations proposals, social Sciences humanities. Introduces the basic concepts necessary to craft a dissertation. Html, pdf, how to Write a thesis Statement. A thesis statement resume expresses the central argument or claim of your essay. Learn more in this pamphlet. Html, pdf, video, paragraphs and Topic Sentences, every paragraph should have a topic sentence. Html, pdf, personal Statements application Letters, helpful tips for crafting a compelling personal statement or application letter.