Northern ireland essay

Cain: Conflict in Northern Ireland: a background Essay

The year 2015 was a special year for the British Parliament as it was the 750th anniversary of the de montfort Parliament (the first gathering in England that can be called a parliament in the dictionary sense of the word along with the 800th anniversary. Three arms of the state, the British political system is headed by a monarchy but essentially the powers of the monarch as head of state - currently queen Elizabeth ii - are ceremonial. The most important practical power is the choice of the member of Parliament to form a government, but the monarch follows the convention that this opportunity is granted to the leader of the political party with the most seats in the house of Commons. Although any remaining powers of the monarchy are largely ceremonial, the royal Family does have some subtle and hidden influence on the legislative process because of a little-known provision that senior royals - notably the queen and her eldest son the Prince of Wales. Traditionally the choice of monarch has been determined on the hereditary and primogeniture principles which means that the oldest male child of a monarch was the next in line to the throne. Under the terms of the Act of Settlement of 1701, the monarch and the monarch's spouse could not be catholics because the uk monarch is also the head of the Church of England. In 2015, the primogeniture principle was abolished, so that the next in line can now be a female eldest child, and the monarch can marry a catholic but not himself or herself be one. In classical political theory, there are three arms of the state: The executive - the ministers who run the country and propose new laws.

The great Reform Act of 1832 abolished 60 'rotten or largely unpopulated, boroughs and extended the vote from 400,000 citizens to 600,000, but this legislation - promoted by the Whigs (forerunners of the liberals) - was only carried after being opposed three times by the. Further Reform Acts followed in 18It was 1918 before the country achieved a plan near universal franchise and 1970 before the last extension of the franchise (to 18-21 year olds). Another important feature of British political history is that three parts of the United Kingdom - scotland, wales and Northern Ireland - have a special status and have local administrations with a wide range of responsibilities. However, England - which represents about 84 of the total uk population of around 65 million - does not have a clear and strong sense of regionalism. So the British political system does not have anything equivalent to the federal system of the 50 states in the usa. The nature of this (dis)United Kingdom took on a new form in the general Election of may 2015 when the Scottish National Party won 56 out of 59 seats in Scotland. The final important part of British political history is that, since 1973, the uk has been a member of what is now called the european Union (EU). This now has 28 Member States covering most of the continent of Europe. Therefore the uk government and Parliament are limited in some respects by what they can do because certain areas of policy or decision-making are a matter for the eu which operates through a european Commission appointed by the member governments and a european Parliament elected. However, in a referendum held on, the British people narrowly voted that the country should leave the european Union (a decsion dubbed Brexit a process that was activated in March 2017 but will take two years and be very complex.

northern ireland essay

Tripartite system of education in, england, wales and

A will key date in this evolution was 1215 when King John was forced to sign the magna carta which involved him sharing power with the barons. This is regarded as the first statement of citizen rights in the world - although Hungarians are proud of the golden Bull of just seven years later. The so-called Model Parliament was summoned by king Edward i in 1295 and is regarded as the first representative assembly. Unlike the absolute monarchs of other parts of Europe, the king of England required the approval of Parliament to tax his subjects and so, then as now, central to the exercise of power was the ability to raise funds. The bicameral nature of the British Parliament - commons and Lords - emerged in 1341 and the two-chamber model of the legislature has served as a template in very many other parliamentary systems. The bill of Rights of 1689 - which is still in effect - lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament, the requirement for regular elections to parliament, and. It was the 19th century before the franchise was seriously extended and each extension was the subject of conflict and opposition.

northern ireland essay

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How history has shaped the political system. The single most important fact in understanding the nature of the British political system is the fundamental continuity of that mattress system. For almost 1,000 years, Britain has not been invaded or occupied for any length of time or over any substantial territory as the last successful invasion of England was in 1066 by the normans. Is this true of any other country in the world? I can only think of Sweden. This explains why: almost uniquely in the world, Britain has no written constitution (the only other such nations are Israel, new zealand and saudi Arabia) the political system is not neat or logical or always fully democratic or particularly efficient change has been very gradual. British attitudes towards the rest of Europe have been insular, not just geographically but culturally, which was a major factor behind the Brexit decision of to simplify British political history very much, it has essentially been a struggle to shift political power and accountability from. There have been many milestones along this long and troubled road to full democracy.

The southern (Catholic) Irish never reconciled themselves to being ruled by the English and rebelled in 1916 and gained independence in 1922. The northern (Protestant) Irish did not want independence and so the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland arrived. Not a snappy name. Meanwhile, although the normans were the last to mount a successful invasion of the country, there were plenty of other plans to conquer the nation, notably the Spanish under King Philip ii in 1588, the French under Napoleon in, and the germans under Hitler. Furthermore, in recent centuries, Britain has not had a revolution of the kind experienced by so many other countries. Some might argue that the English civil War (1642-1651) was the nation's revolution and - athough it was three and a half centuries ago - it did bring about a major shift in power, but the main constitutional consequence - the abolition of the monarchy. There was a time in British history which we call the Glorious revolution (1688) but it was a very English revolution, in the sense that nobody died, if a rather Dutch revolution in that it saw William of Orange take the throne. So the British have never had anything equivalent to the American revolution or the French revolution, they have not been colonised in a millennium but rather been the greatest colonisers in history, and in neither of the two world wars were they invaded or occupied.

the, black Irish, myth - dark fiber

northern ireland essay

Ireland - history, people, clothing, traditions

Philadelphia new York : jb sight lippincott. British political system, back to home page click here, a short guide to the, british political system. Contents, a very, very short history, to understand fully any country's political system, one needs to understand something of its history. This is especially true of the United Kingdom because its history has been very different from most other nations and, as a result, its political system is very different from most other nations too. Like its (unwritten) constitution, the British state evolved over time. We probably need to start in 1066 when William the conqueror from Normandy invaded what we now call England, defeated the Anglo-saxon King Harold and established a norman dynasty. The normans were not satisfied with conquering England and, over the next few centuries, tried to conquer Ireland, wales and Scotland.

They succeeded with the first two and failed with the last despite several wars over the centuries. By one of those ironical twists of history, when queen Elizabeth of England died in 1603, she was succeeded by her cousin James vi, king of Scots who promptly decamped from Edinburgh and settled in London as King James i of England while keeping his. Regal pickings were more lucrative in his southern capital. A century later the Scottish economic and political elite bankrupted themselves on the darien Scheme and agreed to a scheme of Union between England and Scotland to make themselves solvent again and so Great road Britain with one parliament based in London came into being. The Irish parliament was abolished in 1801 with Ireland returning members to westminster and the new political entity was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

As Anglo-normans intermarried with the natives andadopted the gaelic language and customs, they progressively became to be more Irish than the Irish. (Grolier obrien,34)The Anglo-norman conquest hurried reforms that brought theIrish church more in line with Roman standards. English legal practicesand civil administration were introduced. Additionally, an Irishparliament, modeled on the English one, was created in the latethirteenth century. (Grolier)By the end of the middle Ages it became clear that the Anglo-norman conquest was a failure. In the sixteenth century the Englishmonarchs, henry viii, mary i and Elizabeth i, made concertedefforts to reconquer Ireland by use of military and by the establishment orplantation of colonies of English settlers upon the island.(OBrien,36)However, henrys ties between the Church of England and the papacycomplicated.


In Ireland, unlike england, there was practically no inherent sympathy with the Protestantreformers among either the gaelic-Irish or the nsequently, the trans-formation of the Church of Ireland into aprotestant church was rejected overwhelming by the majority of thepopulation. De vere White, terence. New York : Walker and Company. Volume 11, pages. Volume 12, pages. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. The land and people of Ireland.

Partition of Ireland, new World Encyclopedia

Ireland was mainly dividedinto three concentric regions in this time :. Dublin and its immediatearea, it was the reviews only area where the English exercised any authority ;. A broad area of territories beyond Dublin which where semi-independent fiefs of the great Anglo-norman lords ;. Territories on thewestern coast of Ireland that retained gaelic customs and remainedcompletely outside of the English rule. (Grolier)The English colony in Ireland reached its peak in the earlyfourteenth century. The gaelic society was enjoying a considerableresurgence. Not only by winning back territories from the colonists butthrough the change of the Anglo-normans into paper an Anglo-Irish aristocracy.

northern ireland essay

The unity experienced under Brian had long disappeared by thetime Ireland faced her next challenge. It came from, the highly effectivefeudal monarchy founded by william the conqueror after his invasion ofthat country in 1066 from Normandy (Grolier England. In 1171,Henry ii, a descendant of William, took advantage of a letter fromPope Adrian. It authorized Henry traditional to make himself overlord ofIreland in order to bring the Irish Church more in line with Romanstandards.(Grolier) Many Anglo-norman barons along with theirretainers had already seized large parts of Ireland when Henry himselfwent to the island accompanied by an army to receive. In those areas where the Anglo-norman barons settled andscattered the native gaelic aristocracy, a feudal system was establishedsimilar to their native english and Norman lands. However, it was notan effective centralized monarchy like the norman feudalism favoredin England. (Grolier) The English government was usually distractedand did issue much authority to the colony.

framework for the feudal system.(Grolier) The complex and detailedkinship arrangements in which both property-holding and succession toleadership roles were regulated by brehon laws. This impaired theexchange of land for military service, a basic bargain underlying feudalsystems. Eventually, the gaelic society managed to organize resistance. In1014, Irish forces led by king Brian Boru decisively defeated thevikings at the battle of Contarf. King Brian was giving the title highking of Ireland. (Grolier) During Brian s tenure (1002-14) his powerthroughout much of the island was insignificant. Without theinfrastructure of feudalism he was unable to make the transition fromsymbolic kingship to effective monarch, which was beginning in other partsof Europe.(Grolier) Though the vikings were gone, they left their markupon the island by founding Irelands first cities, including. Dublin, limerick and Waterford.

Celtic peoples from westernEurope, known as gaels, invaded and subdued the inhabitants. The basic units of needed the gaelic society were the tuatha, which werepetty kingdoms. They remained independent of each other but shared thesame common language, gaelic. There were also a class of men calledbrehons, who were learned in customary laws and helped topreserve throughout Ireland a uniform yet archaic social system.(Grolier) One reason for the unique nature of their society was that theRomans, who had transformed the celtic societies of Britain. A result of Irelands isolation from RomanizedEurope was the development of a distinctive celtic type of Christianity. While saint Patrick introduced Latin Christianity into the country inthe fifth century, the system of bishops with territorial dioceses which wasmodeled on the romans administrative system, it could not find securityin Ireland at the time.(Grolier) Though the independent tuath remainedthe basic unit of gaelic secular. During the sixth and seventhcenturies Irish monasteries were great centers of learning. Suchmissionaries as saint Columba and saint Columban were sent out to therest of Europe. While the rest of Europe was in the dark Ages, thiswas Irelands golden age.(Grolier)In the late eighth century, vikings from Scandinavia began toraid Ireland.

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Ireland Essay, research Paper, irelandIreland is an island country lying to the west of Great Britian. Itis separated from Great Britain. Georges Channel, writing the Irish seaand the northern Channel. At its greatest length, from northeast tosouthwest, it measures three hundred and two miles. The first humansettlements on the island on the northeastern edge of Europe were maderelatively late in European prehistory, about six thousand. Itremained relatively uninhabited and uninvaded. The only knowledge ofthis Ireland is through references in Greek and Roman literature andpagan legends that survived into the Christian period. Sometime betweensix hundred and one hundred fifty.


northern ireland essay
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  6. Ireland, essay, research Paper IrelandIreland. Georges Channel, the Irish seaand the. The latest news and comment. Skip to main content.

  7. The religious and political conflict. Northern, ireland is a deep seeded, highly emotional issue. Put simplistically, it is a centuries old battle between the.

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